Colposcopy is a procedure to used doctor in which a special magnifying device to look at your vulva, vagina and cervix. During colposcopy, doctors finds an unusual area of cells using a special instrument called a colposcope. If the doctor sees a problem, he/she can take small sample of tissue (biopsy) from the cervix or from inside the opening of the cervix. The sample is looked at under a microscope. It's used to check for precancerous or abnormal areas .Colposcope can be magnify area between 10 and 40 times and some devices also can take photographs.

This test is most done, when a Pap test result is abnormal. Most abnormal Pap tests are caused by viral infections. Examples HPV infection and other types of infection, such as bacteria, protozoa (Trichomonas), or fungi (yeast). The cervical cell changes (atrophic vaginitis) linked to menopause can also cause an abnormal Pap test. In some cases, untreated cervical cell changes that cause abnormal Pap tests may become precancerous or cancerous changes.

During colposcopy, a medical history is obtained, including gravidity (number of prior pregnancies), parity (number of prior deliveries), last menstrual period, contraception use, prior abnormal pap smear results, allergies, significant past medical history, other medications, prior cervical procedures, and smoking history. In some cases, a pregnancy test may be performed before the procedure.

A colposcope in which the doctors used to identify visible clues suggestive of abnormal tissue. It functions as a lighted binocular or monocular microscope to magnify the view of the cervix, vagina, and vulvar surface. Minimum magnification (2× to 6×) may be used to obtain a general impression of the surface architecture. Magnification(8x to 25x) are utilized to evaluate the vagina and cervix. Higher magnification with green filter is used to identify certain vascular patterns that may indicate the presence of more advanced pre-cancerous or cancerous lesions. Acetic acid solution and iodine solution applied on the surface to improve the visualization of abnormal areas.

The colposcopy is done in a doctor's office and is similar to a regular gynecologic examination. An instrument is used to catch the vagina, and the vagiologist sees the cervix and vagina only through regular colophoscope rather than checking.Colposcope is kept out of the patient's body and never touches the skin. Cervical and vaginal dilute acetic acid (vinegar). Its solution exposes unusual areas to white (instead of a normal pink color) and exposes them. Abnormal areas can be identified by the discovery of a specific pattern created by abnormal blood vessels. In 2004, a study has shown that a new optical detection system used with corposcopy during the procedure has significantly improved visual identification of anterior changes in the cervix.

If the any abnormal areas are seen, then the doctor will take a biopsy of tissue, a normal procedure that takes around 15 minutes. Depending on the size of the unusual area, many samples can be taken. Biopsy may be a cause of temporary inconvenience and cramps, which ordinarily go within few a minutes. If abnormal area appears to be extended within the cervical canal, then a canal scrap can be done. Biopsy results are usually available within one week.

If the sample of the tissue indicates abnormal growth (dysplasia) or precancer, and if the entire abnormal area can be seen, then the doctor can destroy the tissue using one of the many processes, including high heat (diathermy) Extremely cold (cryotherapy), or lasers.Another procedure, called a loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP), uses low-voltage high-frequency radio waves to excise tissue. If any of the abnormal tissue is within the cervical canal, a cone biopsy (removal of a conical section of the cervix for inspection) will be needed.

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